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Children & Youth Bullying: How to Spot and Address it

Children & Youth Bullying: How to Spot and Address it

By Tan Su-Lynn, Educational Psychologist

Bullying can be manifested in many forms, and children and youth can be involved in many ways in it. However, with 1 in 4 children in Singapore reporting that they have experienced bullying a few times a month, bullying might be closer to home than you think. 

Bullying is done with the intent to hurt and is repeated or persistent. Often, the target of bullying finds it difficult to stop it or stand up for himself / herself. This is different from peer conflicts or quarrels which typically involve incidents where children mutually hurt each other. As parents and caregivers, how do we support our children as they navigate the complexities of relationship-building, and what are some warning signs that indicate that they are involved in bullying? 

 

Broadly, there are three different types of bullying

  • Relational: When hurtful actions are made with the intention to shame a person and damage the forming of healthy relationships and friendships. This can take the form of leaving someone out of a group, teasing, name-calling, expressing negative thoughts or feelings about a person, and even intimidating them to do things against their will.

 

  • Physical: When harm has been inflicted on a person or their belongings. This can take the form of hitting, punching, kicking, inappropriate touching and persistent damaging or stealing of belongings.

 

  • Cyber-bullying: Occurs on the internet, through mobile phones, computers, video-game systems and other forms of technology. Both relational and physical bullying can occur on this platform. For example, digital technology can be used to gossip and spread rumours or hostile messages, or game accounts can be hacked and items stolen. 

 

How do I identify if my child is involved in bullying?

Recognising these warning signs is the first step in stemming bullying. 

Warning signs of being a target of bullying:

Your child…

  • has unexplainable cuts, bruises, scratches or other injuries
  • comes home with lost, torn, damaged, or destroyed clothing, books, stationeries or other belongings 
  • is unusually hungry after returning from school
Physical Signs
  • seems fearful of going to school, walking to and from school, riding the school bus, or taking part in organized activities with peers, and often finds or makes up excuses (e.g. faking illness) as to why he/she cannot go to school
  • has declining grades, lost interest in school work or suddenly begins to do poorly in school
School-related signs
  • experiences a loss of appetite, or has changes in eating habits like skipping meals or binge eating
  • reports sleeping difficulty (e.g. trouble falling and staying asleep, frequent bad dreams, etc)
  • complains frequently of headaches, stomachaches or other physical ailments
Health signs
  • suddenly stops talking about friends and has few, if any, friends, with whom he or she spends time with during recess or after school
  • is withdrawn and stammers
  • continually ‘loses’ money or starts stealing
  • appears anxious, sad, moody, teary, or depressed when he or she comes home and suffers from low self-esteem 
  • self-harms or talks about suicide
  • becomes aggressive and unreasonable
  • refuses to talk about what is wrong
  • begins to target siblings
Emotional and Behavioural signs

 

Warning signs of engaging in bullying:

Your child…

  • gets into verbal or physical fights
  • suddenly possesses unexplained extra money or new belongings
  • often reacts aggressively towards others
  • has friends who bully others
  • may be excessively worried about their popularity and reputation
  • can be competitive
  • has received many disciplinary warnings and actions 
  • refuses to accept responsibility for their actions 
  • blames others for their problems
  • experiences anxiety or depression
  • has difficulty regulating his/her emotions and behaviour
What should I do if I think my child is involved in bullying?

It is important to talk with children who show signs of being bullied or bullying others. The safety and mental health of our children should remain an utmost concern. It’s painful to think of your child receiving or inflicting harm on other kids, but bullying is a serious issue for both the targeted and the aggressor. According to research, a vast majority of bullies have also been the targets of bullying, and less than 1% of primary school children are “true bullies” – those who were not bullied by their peers.

Bear these three C’s in mind when relating with your child: Communicate, Consult and Connect

  • Communicate
    If you hear from a teacher or another parent that your child involved in a bullying situation, the first thing you should do is talk to your child about the situation. Be direct about the issue, but make it clear that you are open to hearing your child’s side of the story. Stay calm and say something like, “Your teacher called to tell me that you were involved in some bullying. I’m really concerned about this, and we need to talk about it. Please tell me what happened.”Avoid prejudging the situation and reacting based on emotions. It can be tempting to immediately blame the other party, criticise parenting, or condemn the school system, but it is also worth taking time to look inward and reflect on whether your own actions may be influencing your child’s. Some children may be modelling their interpersonal style based on the behaviour they have observed. If so, it is important to start fostering a positive home environment, where members of the family treat one another with kindness and respect, creating a safe space for children to share their worries and failures.

 

  • Consult
    Talking through the situation with your child can help you understand why the bullying is happening, and what steps need to be taken in order to stop it. For example, you may find that your child has incredibly low self-esteem and bullying helped him/her feel powerful and able to control something. He/she might prefer being known as ‘the worst kid in school’ and interacting with other children in the process, rather than not being noticed at all and having no friends. Or perhaps your child might accept being the target of bullying with the mistaken belief that such behaviours are acceptable between friends. Some children may not be able to articulate their feelings. This is especially true of children who are struggling with anxietytrauma, or another mental health issue. If you are having trouble, consider consulting a child psychologist or psychiatrist who has a lot of experience evaluating kids’ behaviours. Your child might need a therapist’s help to work through underlying issues, investigate the root of the problem and guide you and your child in tackling the specific challenges that your child faces in his/her social interactions. 

 

  • Connect
    Ultimately, it is about building a close and lasting connection with your child. Connecting with your child about his/her day-to-day life will put you in a better position to recognise signs of bullying and trouble. Start with asking your child a few open-ended questions on a daily basis. For example, ask him/her to share about one really great thing that happened that day, and one not-so-great thing. It can be tough to get started, but children who are regularly encouraged to share details of their lives with their parents tend to be more comfortable with continuing to do so when they are in their adolescence. Listening to your child in a supportive, non-judgmental way helps them feel connected to your presence and love in their lives, and makes them more receptive to opening up to you about their problems as well as accepting the advice that you give to them. It is always better to handle challenging issues like bullying together so that your child will be able to walk out of the shadow of the bullying with confidence and courage.

 


Reference

1 https://bullyfree.sg/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/The-Straits-Times_Bullying-in-schools-stable-and-managed.pdf, https://mothership.sg/2019/12/bullying-singapore-pisa-2018/

2 https://www.theguardian.com/education/2008/aug/29/bullying.schools2