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Mental Health Awareness Panel Discussion feat. Dr Rajesh Jacob & S C Anbarasu

Mental Health Awareness Panel Discussion feat. Dr Rajesh Jacob & S C Anbarasu

On May 16th 2020, Dr Rajesh Jacob, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist & S C Anbarasu, Senior Clinical Psychologist, were invited to be a part of a Public Education Talk: ‘Mental Health Awareness Panel Discussion’ by the ‘Migrant Workers Singapore’  group – a migrant workers community platform.

The discussion touched on a wide range of Mental Health conditions that they are concerned over; explained what they are and how one could cope or be a support.

We encourage you to hit the ‘play’ button to view the video.

 

Mental Health Awareness Panel Discussion

So if you feel anxious, depressed, stressed, or even suicidal? What can you do? Too many people suffer in silence and don’t seek help! Come join a conversation about mental health issues! Our experienced panel will consist of mental health professionals from various disciplines, a Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Senior Clinical Psychologist from Promises Healthcare Clinic, and an Assistant Head of a Family Service Centre! The panel will be moderated by Casework Manager of SG Accident Help Jevon Ng, an advocate for mental health and wellbeing. Our panel members all have a lived experience of mental health and will be answering questions from the audience.audience participation is encouraged. Please click the link below to join the webinar: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/83397902082Date: Saturday, May 16 2020Time: 4:30 pm – 6:30 pmEvent Categories: Raise Awareness Organizer@Migrant workers Singapore Support by SGcare Physiotherapy Clinic

Posted by Migrant Workers Singapore on Saturday, 16 May 2020

Religion, Spirituality and Psychiatry

Religion, Spirituality and Psychiatry

Written by: Dr Rajesh Jacob, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Promises Healthcare

 

The basic characteristics of all religions are similar. There is a firm belief in a higher unseen power who is the supreme master.

 

Religion and Spirituality, Is There A Difference?

Religion Is an organized system of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols designed to facilitate closeness to the sacred or transcendent (God, higher power, or ultimate truth/reality).

Spirituality is the personal quest for understanding answers to the ultimate questions about life, about meaning, and about the relationship with the sacred or transcendent, which may (or may not) lead to or arise from the development of religious rituals and the formation of a community. Spirituality is thus a more inclusive concept than religion.

 

Mental Illness In The Middle Ages

The idea that religion and psychiatry have always been in conflict is still very prevalent. Today, most people believe that in the medieval ages, most mental disorders were considered as witchcraft or demonic possession. People with mental disorders were recognized as different and treated in various ways. Early medicine men, considering such individuals to be possessed by demons, introduced a technique called trephination, which Involved drilling a hole in the head of the individual to let evil spirits out of the body. Many other civilizations independently developed such a procedure. For example, among the remains of the Incas in Peru are skulls with holes and trephination devices. The treatment of mental illness deteriorated in the late Middle Ages and remained poor through the eighteenth century. As the medieval years progressed, insanity became linked to witchcraft and demon possession. Those considered to be possessed with demons were exorcised. This ritual, performed by a priest, would call upon the demon to come out of the individual and to transfer itself into an animal or inanimate object. Both the Greeks and Romans thought that the mentally ill were capable of causing major social problems, as well as harm to themselves. They made provisions for guardians to take care of the insane. Realizing that these people could hurt themselves or others and could destroy life and property, laws were passed that set specific guidelines. Since there were no lunatic asylums, people with mental illness were a family responsibility. The seriously impaired were restrained at home, but others were permitted to wander in the hope that evil spirits might fly out of them.

Certain saints were thought to be more active in the domain of madness. In northern France, the shrines of Saint Mathurin at Larchant and Saint Acairus at Haspres were known for healing. In Flanders, now Belgium, citizens of Geel developed a shrine to Saint Dymphna that became a hospice to house the mentally ill. During the early years of the Middle Ages, the community took care of the mentally ill. Later, hospices, then asylums were developed to house them. London’s Bethlem asylum—better known as Bedlam—was founded in 1247, making it one of the oldest institutions of its kind. The term “bedlam” became associated with chaos, confusion, and poor treatment, which reflected the general attitude toward mental illness at the time. It was only in the nineteenth century that scientists and society began to reconsider deviant behaviour from the perspective of mental illness rather than as a manifestation of evil spirits.

 

Religion And Psychiatry

Persons with mental disorders can sometimes present with symptoms such as hyper-religiosity (manic episodes as part of bipolar disorder) or delusional beliefs such as possessing godly or religious powers. Rates of religious delusions in schizophrenia remain high. These symptoms and signs need to be carefully assessed by mental health professionals. Certain groups in Christianity such as Pentecostal Christians “speak in tongues”, which is not a symptom of mental illness, but an expression of their religious beliefs. “Speaking in tongues” is mentioned in the Bible. 

In the last two decades, rigorous scientific research has been done and published in mainstream medical and psychological journals. David B. Larson, Jeffrey S. Levin and Harold G. Koenig were some of the authors. They have conducted a series of studies looking at the relationship between religious involvement and mental health in mature adults, either living in the community or hospitalized with medical illness. Since then, many other researchers have produced a large body of research that has usually, but not always, shown a positive association between religious involvement and mental health.

According to the Harvard psychologist, Gordon Allport, a person’s religious orientation may be intrinsic and/or extrinsic.

  • Extrinsic Orientation
    Persons with this orientation are disposed to use religion for their own ends. Many find religion useful in a variety of ways – to provide security and solace, sociability and distraction, status and self-justification. 

 

  • Intrinsic Orientation
    Persons with this orientation find their master motive in religion.

    • Other needs, strong as they may be, are regarded as of less ultimate significance, and they are, so far as possible, brought in harmony with the religious beliefs. Having embraced a creed, the individual endeavours to internalize it and follow it fully. Usually, the intrinsic orientation is associated with healthier personality and mental status, while the extrinsic orientation is associated with the opposite. Extrinsic religiosity is associated with dogmatism, prejudice, fear of death, and anxiety, it “does a good job of measuring the sort of religion that gives religion a bad name.
    • Physical health:  Religiousness was related to decreased smoking and alcohol consumption. Religious commitment and participation seemed to affect longevity, as well, especially in men.
    • Suicide rates were consistently found to have a negative correlation with religiosity. In Hinduism, if you take your life prematurely, you have to suffer in the next birth. Most research findings support that religious affiliation, especially participation, lowers the rate of alcohol consumption. Being religious results in more hope and optimism and life satisfaction.

 

Belief Systems, Cognitive Framework

Beliefs and cognitive processes influence how people deal with stress, suffering and life issues.

Religious beliefs can provide support through the following ways: Enhancing acceptance, endurance, and resilience. They generate peace, self-confidence, purpose, forgiveness to the individual’s own failures, and positive self-image. On the other hand, they can sometimes bring guilt, doubts, anxiety and depression through an enhanced self-criticism. ‘Locus of control’ is an expression that arises from the social learning theory and tries to understand why people react in different ways even when facing the same problem. An internal ‘locus of control’ is usually associated with well-being and an external one with depression and anxiety. A religious belief can favour an internal ‘locus of control’ with an impact on mental health.

 

Religious practices

Public and private religious practices can help to maintain mental health and prevent mental diseases. They help to cope with anxiety, fears, frustration, anger, anomie, inferiority feelings, despondency and isolation. The most commonly studied religious practice is meditation. 

It has been reported that it can produce changes in personality, reduce tension and anxiety, diminish self-blame, stabilize emotional ups and downs, and improve self-knowledge. Improvement in panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, insomnia, drug use, stress, chronic pain and other health problems have been reported. Follow-up studies have documented the effectiveness of these techniques.

 

Role of the Psychiatrist

During assessment, the psychiatrist should be able to determine whether the religion in the life of his patient is important, has a special meaning and is active or inactive. Four basic areas should be remembered when taking a spiritual history.

  1. Does the patient use religion or spirituality to help cope with illness or is it a source of stress, and how?
  2. Is the patient a member of a supportive spiritual community?
  3. Does the patient have any troubling spiritual question or concerns?
  4. Does the patient have any spiritual beliefs that might influence medical care?

The clinician who truly wishes to consider the bio-psycho-social aspects of a patient needs to assess, understand, and respect his/her religious beliefs, like any other psychosocial dimension.

 


Photo by Jeremy Perkins on Unsplash

An interview about Alcohol Addiction on Vasantham’s En Ullae S2 with Dr Rajesh Jacob

An interview about Alcohol Addiction on Vasantham’s En Ullae S2 with Dr Rajesh Jacob

Vasantham (Mediacorp’s Tamil & Hindi TV Channel) studios reached out to Promises Healthcare’s Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Dr Rajesh Jacob, in the name of bringing greater mental health awareness to the Indian community in Singapore.

Episode 7 of En Ullae S2 is a harrowing tale of Ramesh’ descent into utter despair due to his alcohol addiction. After the lilting trill of a happy alcohol buzz wears off, people in the throes of addiction often experience a sense of bitterness and desolation. It’s an artificial stimulant that when consumed, releases endorphins, neurotransmitters that promote a feeling of euphoria and help reduce stress.

Some instances of alcoholism are undergirded by an anxiety disorder, according to Dr Rajesh Jacob. He posits that people attempt to “treat” symptoms of anxiety by self-medicating with alcohol, ameliorating the discomfort of social situations through chemically induced disinhibition and happiness. They become chattier, and won’t choke during conversations – an alluring prospect for chronically anxious people.

Ramesh, now advanced in age, wistfully recounts how he fell into alcoholism. At 15, he and his friends would entertain themselves with drinks and idle chatter at a ‘kopitiam’, a Singaporean colloquialism for ‘coffee-shop’. Dr Jacob reminds us that despite being a stimulant, long term alcohol abuse invariably leads to depression or anxiety. Alcohol addiction can stem from a variety of factors – from the ‘angry, drunk father’ to early over-exposure to alcohol, and everything in between. Hassan Mansoor, a recovering alcoholic, confesses that his first foray into Bacchanal pleasure was during his secondary school years(junior high) for you Americans). He doesn’t remember the time with rose-tinted glasses, though – his adolescent years were marked by incessant violence, physical altercations and poor academic performance. He’d thought it made him look “cool”. Beer, whiskey, “Boon Kee Low”, “Paddy”, its name derived from its roots as a rice wine, and “Deer”. All of them cheap highs. 

We’re then treated to a vignette in which a listless Ramesh, rake thin, gets into an argument with his doe-eyed girlfriend over whether wine should be drunk at lunch. Both of them are adamant that they hold the moral high ground – Ramesh, with his insistence that wine is “not hard liquor”, and Reena, with the awareness that his alcoholism is ruining not only their relationship but himself. We learn that the long-suffering Reena has tolerated Ramesh’s equivocations and excuses for four years, and she’s at the end of her tether. 

 

(Click on the link for a version with English subtitles. Remember to click on the ‘Settings’ button to reveal the English subtitle selection. https://www.mewatch.sg/en/series/en-ullae-s2/ep7/954631 )
Dr Jacob explains that genuine awareness of an alcohol problem can only legitimately come from within, and external criticism is met with a wall of anger and irritation. In the early stages of alcohol addiction, one usually does manage to induce some level of happiness. As the disease progresses, drinking no longer “feels good” and chemical dependence means that consumption is imperative to avoid withdrawals. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms include hand tremors, which can set in as quickly as 4 – 6 hours from the last drink, insomnia, anxiety, psychological cravings, palpitations and sweating. Alcohol addiction is a vicious cycle, according to Dr Jacob. 

Most people suffering from alcohol addiction start off with social drinking, which isn’t a problem in itself. However, addiction is a chronic, progressive disease which Dr Jacob measures with three factors of varying severity: drink frequency, duration of drinking, and cravings. Ramesh admits that his family life and relationships suffered. Getting blackout drunk was a nightly affair, which left his wife paranoid of his infidelity, when in fact he was unconscious in a ditch somewhere. He wouldn’t remember the events leading up to the loss of consciousness, a form of anterograde amnesia. Eventually, his wife takes out a Personal Protection Order (PPO) against him, the Singaporean variant of a restraining order.

The spiral into full throttle addiction isn’t a pretty sight. Just being in the presence of his drinking buddies would catalyse a night of binge drinking, invariably followed by a hangover in the morning made all the more unbearable by guilt over the slow rot of his cherished relationships. Work performance suffered, many a medical certificate was sought, culminating in joblessness. 

Dr Jacob explains that addiction leads to productivity impairments at work. A sure sign of dependence is the need for a drink in the morning to curb tremors and imbibe him with enough energy to perform as a barely functioning alcoholic. Day drinking and surreptitious alcohol breaks are common. When in active addiction, one’s happiness (in the form of craving relief) takes precedence over that of others, and empathy goes out the window. Ramesh is reduced to a pitiable state, cajoling once close friends to spot him the occasional tenner – in their eyes, he is reduced to a shadow of his former self. Now jobless and without an income, he burdens his children with the restitution of his loans – he is now too functionally impaired to perform any meaningful work. His wife is now the sole breadwinner, and the guilt in his voice is apparent, even today.

Ramesh only manages to stop drinking for some length of time at 48 due to chest pains. After a successful heart bypass, he turns to drink again. Then comes the second bypass, which he sullies with an infection brought on by his inveterate drinking. Alcohol and heart medication should not be taken together, but his addiction blinds him to a sanguine truth. It is only after last-ditch surgery is performed that he cultivates some restraint, managing to abstain from drink when he recuperates for a month in the hospital. He is 68 when he finally gets into recovery.

All manner of physical ailments accompanies alcohol addiction. “From the head to the feet”, Dr Jacob says. The brain is atrophied such that fits, falls, bleeding, subdural hematomas and dementia become common. Liver cirrhosis brings about jaundice and bloody stool. Peripheral neuropathy, a feeling of pins and needles in the hands and feet arises from damage to nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Even sexual performance suffers. If diabetes is comorbid, the body becomes much poorer at sugar control.

Dr Jacob recommends a ‘biopsychosocial’ model for treating alcohol addiction. “Bio” refers to medical treatment in the form of total abstinence (detoxification) and medication. “Psychosocial” refers to psychological counselling to treat addiction, medication to reduce cravings, and therapy sessions with the family. In short, a treatment model that aims to target likely risk factors for relapse.

Nobody takes their first drink and thinks, “This’ll be the death of me”. Fortunately, if people suffering from alcohol addiction take a step back and consider their mind, their physical body, and their loved ones, and combined with proper support and therapy, recovery is possible.

An interview about Psychosis on Vasantham’s En Ullae S2 with Dr Rajesh Jacob

An interview about Psychosis on Vasantham’s En Ullae S2 with Dr Rajesh Jacob

Vasantham (Mediacorp’s Tamil & Hindi TV Channel) studios reached out to Promises Healthcare’s Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Dr Rajesh Jacob, in the name of bringing greater mental health awareness to the Indian community in Singapore.

This episode of En Ullae touches on psychosis. This case study was about a man who had developed schizophrenia and became obsessed with the ‘spiritual safety’ of his partner. The building tension served to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the symptoms of psychosis, which his partner was predisposed to do, in her untoward position as the long-suffering partner in a dangerously unstable relationship. Dr Jacob characterised psychosis as rooted in an unshakeable belief in false delusions – people who suffer from the condition are often willfully blind to reason, which he cautions against trying to impose on them when the time is inclement. 

Prem, the unfortunate man with all the symptoms of hallucinatory schizophrenia, began to cast an evermore imposing spectre in the relationship, causing much distress to Rani. His delusions began to take such a toll on their relationship, with even the good tidings of a baby in the oven twisted into a string of abortion by Rani, afraid that he would bring harm to her and any prospective child she would bequeath upon them – he professed to see the child as a harbinger of doom, as the embodiment of the devil. Midway through the episode, the viewer is treated to the appearance of two ambiguous personalities – a man and a woman, whose blue lanyard faintly conveyed some sense of authority. We are left uncertain as to their actual responsibilities – they are at times quizzical, unwilling to manifest the “good cop, bad cop” trope. No matter, it is not the point of the episode to further entangle the convoluted plotlines – they serve as plot devices which encourage Prem’s own narrative to unfold – to the end, he remains stolidly convinced that his stabbing of Rani had taken her to a better place, the expression on his face almost beatific at times. 

Dr Jacob, at this point, sees fit to caution the viewer against harshly attributing homicidal tendencies to persons with psychosis. He presents the statistic that even less than 15% of homicides are perpetrated by people mentally unsound. Noting the prevalence of drug use and antisocial tendencies that colour this 15%, he confidently steers the viewer away from making too quick a conclusion – it is in everyone’s best interest to step back and evaluate statistics grounded in good science, instead of leaping to the easy conclusion that Prem was beyond rehabilitation.

 

(Click on the link for a version with English subtitles. Remember to click on the ‘Settings’ button to reveal the English subtitle selection. https://www.mewatch.sg/en/series/en-ullae-s2/ep6/952940 )

Helping The Elderly During This COVID-19 Circuit Breaker Season

Helping The Elderly During This COVID-19 Circuit Breaker Season

Dr Rajesh Jacob (Senior Consultant Psychiatrist @ Promises Healthcare) was interviewed by Tamil Murasu on 19th April about his views on ways we can help the elderly during this COVID 19 Circuit Breaker season.

Here’s an English translation of that interview:

1.What kind of mental issues that the elderly can experience during a pandemic like COVID 2019

Physical distancing during this public health crisis is essential in preventing the spread of the virus, but it can come at a high cost to seniors’ mental health and well-being, resulting in loneliness, anxiety, depression, and cognitive problems. Self-isolation will disproportionately affect elderly individuals whose only social contact is out of the home, such as at daycare venues, community centres, and places of worship. Those who do not have close family or friends, and rely on the support of voluntary services or social care, could be placed at additional risk, along with those who are already lonely, isolated, or secluded. It’s hard to escape news updates about coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The constant headlines and media reporting may make some people anxious. In particular, older adults, people with chronic health conditions, and caregivers are likely to be at higher risk for increased stress and anxiety, since they face a higher risk of illness if they contract the virus. Fear and worry about your own health and the health of your loved ones can result in changes in sleeping or eating habits, difficulty sleeping or concentrating, worsening of chronic health problems and increased use of alcohol or tobacco.

2) What are the potential do’s and don’ts that the elderly have to observe during this period of time? (e.g. spreading unverified COVID-19 news via whatsapp)

Maintaining seniors’ connection to their healthcare providers using the telephone or video telehealth platforms is critical and “may be the most important thing we do as mental health professionals.These include greater use of computers or tablets to stay connected to family, loved ones, and friends through video chats and playing online games.Seeing each other’s faces, hearing their voices, and sharing the experience that we’re going through can be therapeutic for everybody.Mindfulness-based interventions and relaxation techniques could also be helpful.There are many computer-based applications for these mindfulness exercises that the elderly folks can try out.

For seniors who are not tech savvy , and have difficulty using smart phones and the internet, just calling their relatives or friends through the phone would be immensely helpful for their mental health and reducing anxiety and fears.

Seniors who are comfortable and confident in using the internet can also sign up to govt websites such as www.gov.sg to obtain correct factual information. Due to widespread internet access, numerous fake messages and videos can be potentially circulated through whatsapp causing increased unnecessary fear and anxiety. This can be avoided by restricting too much exposure to online news and messages and probably watching the news on TV once a day for those who are more prone to anxiety.

GO ON A NEWS DIET

Stay informed, know what’s going on but don’t get locked into endlessly watching “breaking news” on the 24-hour news channels.

3) How can family members in the household assist to ease their worries, concerns and fears?

Children and grandchildren of the elderly who are living alone can also help by being in regular online contact and also calling them on their phones and giving them verified factual information of the COVID outbreak . For family members living in the same household, it is good to regularly update the elderly people about correct factual information about the epidemic. It is also important for the family members to keep the elderly engaged in other activities such as reading, playing indoor board games, chess, and other activities. It is also important for the elderly to avoid going out  as they are more vulnerable and family members can help by providing groceries and other household essentials to them.

4) What kind of meaningful activities can the elderly engage at home during this period?

In addition to picking up the telephone, other  options that may help seniors stay mentally engaged include practicing hobbies or activities such as knitting, crossword puzzles, “or whatever else works for them. Whatever helps them cope and keeps them occupied during self-quarantine should be encouraged. If there is a positive aspect to the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s that it has forced people to slow down and connect with each other.You may not be able to control the virus, but you can help control your emotional reaction to it.Take breaks from watching, reading, or listening to news stories, including on social media. Hearing about the pandemic over and over can be upsetting.Take care of your body. Take deep breaths, stretch, or meditate. Here’s a free guide on how to meditate from Mindful magazine.

Eat healthy, well-balanced meals.

Relax by doing activities you enjoy. Try crossword or jigsaw puzzles, , cook healthy meals and freeze some for later, and seek out TV shows to watch that give you pleasure. Explore your library’s online offerings.

For those who are not tech-savvy , it would be useful to learn the basics of using the internet and also learning to use online tools such as Facebook or zoom, so that they can get in touch virtually with friends and relatives if they are living alone.

5) How can the community play its part to care for the elderly who have little family/external support and live alone?

It is important for neighbours living in the same floor to look out for the vulnerable elderly living next to them. It is at times of crisis like this, do people need to get more empathetic and concerned about their fellow human beings. Neighbours can check on their well being on atleast twice a day basis, help them to get their groceries and also check on their physical health and get medical help if required.

There are also community agencies run by the government  as well as NGO’s  who have volunteers who can provide additional support to the elderly living along or with poor family support.

There are organisations which can provide meals delivered to their houses which will avoid the elderly leaving their houses unnecessarily .

6) Taking care of elderly patients especially those with conditions like dementia can be challenging for care givers. How can care givers ease their tensions, worries and stress while taking care of the elderly at home ?

For patients with Alzheimer disease or other cognitive problems, maintaining routine is important. Any change in routine can lead to agitation and behavioural issues in these patients. Share simple facts about what is going on and give clear information about how to reduce risk of infection in  older people with cognitive impairment. Repeat the information whenever necessary. Instructions need to be communicated in a clear, concise, respectful and patient way. It may also be helpful for information to be displayed in writing or pictures. It will be also useful for caregivers of patients with dementia to take turns in looking after them to reduce the risk of caregiver stress and caregiver burnout. It will also be useful for caregivers to join online groups where they can share their concerns and other relevant information with similar caregivers looking after people with dementia.

An interview about Postnatal Depression on Vasantham’s En Ullae S2 with Dr Rajesh Jacob

An interview about Postnatal Depression on Vasantham’s En Ullae S2 with Dr Rajesh Jacob

Vasantham (Mediacorp’s Tamil & Hindi TV Channel) studios reached out to Promises Healthcare’s Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Dr Rajesh Jacob, in the name of bringing greater mental health awareness to the Indian community in Singapore.

In this episode En Ullae on Postnatal Depression, Dr Rajesh Jacob shed light on what some still view as a taboo reaction to what society views as a blessing – the birth of a child. Postnatal or Postpartum Depression is marked by a dip in mood, emotional turmoil, sleeplessness, and changes in eating habits. It can haunt a mother who has borne her flesh and blood for over a year, or the pall might lift after just two weeks. 

(Click on the link for a version with English subtitles. Remember to click on the ‘Settings’ button to reveal the English subtitle selection. https://www.mewatch.sg/en/series/en-ullae-s2/ep3/930140)

 

This episode started out light and buoyant, with scenes of carefree courtship. But the fortuitous chemistry of an arranged marriage that might have heralded exemplaries of the nuclear family, under different circumstances, was to be tested by the wife’s struggle with Postnatal Depression. The coming child would serve as a lightning rod, bringing strife into the relationship. Even before the little baby girl’s conception, the couple disagreed on whether to have one – but cultural pressures enveloped the mother with a pained acquiescence with living up to the status of an “ideal mother” – at odds with her inner values, although she scarcely knew it. Dr Jacob noted that the immense pressure of a cultural belief in the Indian community that a child was “God’s gift” would serve only to create uncomfortable dissonance within a mother who is not ready to bear fruit. 

At some point during one of their many arguments, the husband even goads his partner with the suggestion of abortion, despite the medical impossibility of aborting a 6-month old fetus in Singapore. The child, inevitably emerging from the womb, healthy, would only highlight the difficulties that the couple would face. 

Dr Jacob was quick to point out the boorish behaviour of the husband, noting that in such situations, the support of family members, especially partners, is crucial in alleviating the symptoms of Postnatal Depression. Dr Jacob went on to warn potential mothers that past depressions were risk factors and that difficulties during the birthing process that might, for example, warrant emergency Caesarean sections, would prove additional risk factors. 

The working mother and father were presented with additional difficulties simply by virtue of the husband and not being able to support the wife when needed. Her slow descent into Postnatal Depression began with the naggings of a vague sense of agitation, exacerbated by tiresome nights and a feeling of malaise. Eventually, she would begin comparing herself to an idealised version of what a Mother should represent, having taken care of relatives’ kids at the age of 13, she felt she had no excuse for her failures. Dr Jacob noted that the unfortunate situation should serve to highlight the dangers of an internal dissonance that would only elevate the crisis. At her nadir, she even contemplated the act of suicide, pulled back from the edge by her maternal instinct. Her child’s cry saved her. 

In these situations, Dr Jacob made clear that she should ideally have been separated from her child, for the family’s sake and checked in to a mental health clinic for treatment. Luckily for them, her husband initiated contact with his own mother, seeking her assistance in caring for the baby. Taking pressure off the mother in situations such as these is of critical importance, who has to learn that she needs time and space to soothe her own mental health crisis. The health of the family unit is somewhat predicated on the stability of the maternal figure, so such a step makes a whole lot of sense. Much attention needs to be shone on the precariousness of these unfortunate situations, so that other prospective mothers are aware of the risks and the steps they can take to avert such crises.